Monday, September 21, 2020

Soaping, sidewalk surfing, and skater shoes: A brief history

(Soap Shoes Image via Pinterest )

You may be surprised to learn the fastest shoes on earth wer not running shoes, so don't look for them on the running track. They were rail riding shoes (soap shoes) which could cost in excess of $200 per pair. What makes Soap shoes a little special is the adaptation they have on their soles. Each shoe sole is fitted with metal grooves (or runners) for sliding down hand railings and other smooth surfaces. The speeds reached by rail riders are very high and of course this fast growing street sport caused urban mayhem, as well increased attendances at A&E Departments.

(Video Courtesy: RYAN JAUNZEMIS by Youtube Channel)

Many broken legs and sprained ankles were reported and that is only the rail riders. Great concern has been expressed for the safety of innocent people whose misfortune it is to meet a young adult in full flight. The craze started in the US in the 90s and the shoes were banned from many schools. Needless to say rail riding shoes were for a time the new trend.

Our urban fascination with wheels at our feet goes back to the late 19th century when the wheel was rediscovered with a vengeance. Cycling revolutionised women’s clothing.

(Video Courtesy: guy jones by Youtube Channel)

After the Second World War, pram wheels were put to good use by children who took to building karts or bogies.

Usually a wooden crate with four pram wheels, the make shift racing cars became a valued part of a kids toy collection.

By the middle of the twentieth century and surfing became established on the West Coast, urban street kids modified their bogies and swapped their pram wheels for smaller ones made from clay. New innovations were made to the trucks or devices which held the wheels to the board and improved maneuverability meant city and town kids could now sidewalk surf.

(Video Courtesy: Randy Abrams by Youtube Channel)

A decade later the popular pastime gained greater popularity with the introduction of professional boards and new promotions including professional demonstrators. Soon organised competitions were introduced and by the end of the sixties international contests were common place with even a movie and magazines available to the devotees of the wee wheels. Cities began to ban skateboards in response to health and safety concerns and for a while anyway bad press concerning fatal accidents caused the industry to dip in sales. Skateboard became an underground activity contained to only certain areas.

(polyurethane wheels Image via

When the polyurethane wheels were discovered skateboarding took on a new life. Further modification meant the new skateboards were easier to use, more reliable and the perfect vehicle for pedestrian maneuverability.

( Urban Skateparks Image via Pinterest)

Skateboard parks began to spring up all over the place as the skateboard design was lengthened to give greater stability on vertical forces. Accidents however continued to dog the new recreation and when skateboard insurance escalated many parks had no choice but to close. The BMX craze took over and again skateboarding fell out of favour.

(Video Courtesy: eHowSports by Youtube Channel)

By the 80's exhibition and competition skateboarding still held its attraction for some but it was only when companies started to target street kids did the extreme sport eventually take hold.

(Skateboard Shoes Image via Pinterest)

In the 90's the popular move from competition to freestyle skateboarding meant boarders (now called slashers) could ride the freeways and did not have to rely on skateboard parks again. Clever marketing paid off and along with the new Thrasher Image* the movement introduced casual clothes to youths. Skateboard shoes, another mutation of the canvas trainers, (Vans, Airwalk and Vision) began selling in huge quantities to young people around the world.

(In line skates Image via Bekiafit)

By 1992 the new craze of inline skates was rediscovered and its impact was felt on snow, surf and street fashion.

(Video Courtesy: SnowboardProCamp by Youtube Channel)

(Video Courtesy: Witchers by Youtube Channel)

* Influenced by hardcore punk style incorporating the clothing worn by US, Hispanic street gangs. Thrashers initially listened to heavy metal music but are more likely today to include rap and hip hop.

Macdonald K 1999 It's hip to slip The Sunday Times (WA) June 27 pp 26
Takamura Z 1997 Roots of street style Tokyo; Graphic-sha Publishing 163-164

(Video Courtesy: ThrasherMagazine by Youtube Channel)

Reviewed 13/01/2019

Sunday, September 20, 2020

The Origins of Break a Leg

(Robert Wilson Lynd Image via Great Thoughts Society)

The idiom 'break a leg' is traditionally said to actors for good luck before they go on stage, especially on an opening night yet no is sure of its origin. It first appeared in print during the early 20th century, when Irish poet and essayist, Robert Wilson Lynd (1879 – 1949) wrote "A Defence of Superstition", about the superstition rife in the theatre for the New Statesman in 1921. Lynd regarded the theatre as the second-most superstitious institution in England, after horse racing. In horse racing, Lynd asserted, to wish a man luck is considered unlucky, so "You should say something insulting such as, 'May you break your leg!'" As it was considered unlucky to wish an actor “good luck” Lynsd asserted people say something insulting. The author however, made no suggestion as to where the idiom originated from.

(Curtain Call Image via Playbill)

There are a host of theories and stories some going all the way back to Ancient Greece but most are nebulous, apocryphal, and disputed. In English, there are least 57 distinct uses for ‘break’ as a verb in the Oxford English Dictionary which gives considerable scope for speculation over what is meant by 'Break a leg.' The idiom was commonly used to mean 'make a strenuous effort', predating reference theatricals. However, actors being traditionally superstitious, the desire not to attract the “evil eye”, by wishing ‘good luck’ to a fellow thespian, may have resulted in ‘break a leg’ as a code meaning to “do well” or “have a great show.”

(Theatre Curtains Image via Pinterest)

There is a long tradition of referencing ‘break’ in colloquial language of the theatre. From Shakespearean times taking a curtain call at the end of a successful play by bowing or curtsying to the audience involved ‘bending the knee,’ and thus was referred to as ‘breaking a leg.’ In more modern theatres, ‘break a leg’ may refer to actors stepping through the leg curtains (or legs) at the side of the stage as they go to bow to the audience.

(William Poel Image via © Victoria and Albert Museum, London)

In the nineteenth century actor managers were commonplace and took principle leading roles for many years. They were the main attraction and almost impossible to replace without potential loss at the box office. When new actors took over roles closely associated with a legendary performer, well-wishers offered the greeting, “break the legend”.

(The Theatre Handbook and Digest of Plays Image via World of Books)

In her autobiography, A Peculiar Treasure (1939), Edna Ferber ( 1885 –1968) described the behaviour of understudies watching their principals from the back row and politely wishing them to ‘break a leg,’ to allow the understudies to take over. American playwright, Bernard Sobel (1887–1964) in his book , The Theatre Handbook and Digest of Plays (1948) described actors never wishing each other good luck before a performance , instead they used 'I hope you break a leg.'

In the absence of a definitive derivation of this idiom many have attempted to postulate as to its origins.

An over zealous audience

(Greek Theatre Image via On Location Education)

In Ancient Greece, people stomped their feet instead of clapping at performances. The more they liked the play, the more they stomped with potential of breaking a leg. By Elizabethan times, audiences showed their appreciation by stomping their chairs which might result in breakages with over zealous stomping.

Actors and their legs

(David Garrick Image via Youtube)

In the 18th-century famed actor David Garrick (1717 – 1779) became so entranced with his performance during Shakespeare's Richard III, he completed the play unaware he had a fracture in his leg.

(Samuel Foote Image via Pinterest)

Dramatist, actor and theatre manager Samuel Foote (1720 – 1777), was duped by the Prince Edward, Duke of York, an incorrigible trickster, and lost his leg in a riding accident in 1766. The Duke had invited Foote to ride out but devilishly gave Foote an unruly horse, which eventually threw him during the ride. As a result of the accident Foot lost his leg and beside himself with embarrassment at his prank, the Duke granted Foote a theatre licence as well as financially supported him from time to time. Keen to vercome being an amputee, Samuel Foote continued acting and writing, The theatre eventually became the Theatre Royal, Haymarket.

(Lincoln assassination Image via Global News)

According to his diary John Wilkes Booth (1838 – 1865) actor turned assassin claimed he broke his leg while trying to escape after the shooting Abraham Lincoln in 1865. Booth leapt from the upper box seat onto the stage at the Ford’s Theatre. In the absence of corroborating evidence some historians believe Booth may have exaggerated and falsified his diary entries to make them more dramatic.

(Vaudville Theater Shows Image via Mortal Journey)

In 19th century vaudeville theatre more acts were booked more acts than could perform in the given time of the show. Common practice was for producers to pull “bad” acts from the stage mid performance depending on audience’s reaction. Performers only received payment if they completed their act on stage. Stand-by performers would line up at the side of the stage hoping to be called on and cross or "break" the line and get paid.

(Manfred von Richthofen Image via twitter)

The Hebrew blessing, ‘hatzlakha u-brakha’ (‘success and blessing’), some have suggested may have been taken by Jewish immigrants to America and and absorbed into the entertainment industry. In his autobiography, The Red Battle Flyer , Manfred von Richthofen recorded First World War pilots regularly used a corruption of ‘success and blessing,’ and would wish their fellow aviators “Hals und Beinbruch” (‘neck and leg (bone) break’) for luck and safety before a flight . The connection between German aviation community and the theatre is tenuous at best and most likely unrelated.


(Ballet dancers Image via The wonderful world of dance)

Ballet dancers do not use 'break a leg' to wish each other good luck, instead they say "Merde!", the French word for excitement. In Spanish, the phrase "mucha mierda"; & Portuguese "muita merda", both mean the same, "lots of shit". The origins are thought to relate to a time when horse drawn carriages ferried the audience to the theatre. The presence of horse dung on the theatre floor was the best gauge of show attendance.

Thursday, September 17, 2020

Ultracrepidarianism (Суди, дружок, не свыше сапога)

(Trump truth Image via Al Jazeera)

In the age of Fake News and information overload the need to recognise truth has never been more important. To be able make informed decisions this is essential although tragically not so simple as it perhaps once was. The contemporary intent to politicise events appears deliberate and with malice intent which may appeal to some but definitely handicaps the majority who seek unbiased information from acknowledged and informed sources. So much misinformation is broadcast daily, and at a time in human history when a deadly pandemic rages, it seems incongruent with basic humanity. Many liberal news outlets now run ‘fact checks,’ on political speak, to curb the worst of misinformation but in an election season this task seems immense. One well recognised procrastinator is the present President of the United States of America. Donald J Trump has demonstrated time and again his ability to express opinion and advice beyond his specific sphere of knowledge. His filibustering has been shown repeatedly to be contrary to and conflict with his expert advisors. The Presidents orations are full of ultracrepidarianisms.

(Pliny the Elder Image via

The derivation of ultracrepidarianism, (meaning to express opinions and advice beyond their specific sphere of knowledge), comes from the Latin ‘ultrā crepidam (also suprā crepidam )’ “above the sole, beyond the sole.” The origins are unclear but many scholars cite Pliny the Elder (AD 23/24 – 79) and his record of an interaction between the greatest artist of Greek Antiquity , Apelles of Kos (BCE 360 –315?) and a cobbler.

(Apelles Image via

Hardly any paintings from Antiquity survived but the descriptions of Apelles’ work were found in Pliny’s account . Much later during the Rennaisance, painters held Apelles in high regard, and many including Sandro Botticelli (1445 – 1510), recreated his works based on Pliny’s descriptions. According to Pliny, the artist attached great value to drawing of outlines and practised every day to become a great master of symmetry and proportion.

(Let the cobbler stick to his last Image via Journey in Life )

According to Pliny the Elder, when a cobbler commented on mistakes in a Apelles’ painting relating to a shoe, the painter quickly made the necessary corrections. The following day Apelles hid behind his painting to eavesdrop on comments. When the cobbler returned, now full of pride at his effect on the artist's work began to criticize other aspects of the painting including anatomical inaccuracies on the subjects leg. At this point, Apelles emerged from his hiding-place to state: Sutor, ne ultra crepidam (Let the shoemaker venture no further). The phrase was later used by Latin writers, to warn people to avoid passing judgment beyond their expertise. The proverb, ‘A cobbler should stick to his last’, became popular in several languages, including English, Dutch, Danish , German, Polish and Russian "Суди, дружок, не свыше сапога."

(William Hazlett Image via Wikipedia)

From this story we get the obscure English word ultracrepidarian (above the sandal), referring to somebody making "wise" pronouncements outside their field of expertise. In 1819, William Hazlitt, essayist first used the term in a letter to William Gifford, the editor of the Quarterly Review. He wrote "You have been well called an Ultra-Crepidarian critic." Hazlitt’s friend and fellow author, Leigh Hunt co-wrote the satire , Ultra-Crepidarius: a Satire on William Gifford , in 1823.

Let us hope todays’ procrastination of fools does not result in what Thomas Lovell Beddoes described in 1825 as, ‘The fatal dowry has been cobbled sure, by some purblind ultracrepidarian.’

Bostock J 1855. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History Chapter 36.— Artists who painted with the pencil.

Wednesday, September 16, 2020

Ballet Anatomy Feet

(En point Image via The Australian Ballet)

Ballet Anatomy Feet
A small insight into the work ballet dancers do to condition the muscles in their feet. Source: The Australian Ballet

Monday, September 14, 2020

History of Modern Shoemaking : Jan Earnst Matzeliger (1852 - 1889) invented the Lasting Machine

(Inventor Jan Matzeliger Image via Pinterest)

Prior to mechanisation, hand lasting journeymen (lasters) were responsible for fitting the leather over the wooden last. It was a very difficult job and these journeymen were regarded as the elite among shoemakers. They organized themselves into unions and safeguarded their occupation by strict regulation. Employers limited to the number of apprentice lasters they could employ. A skilled journeyman could turn out 60 pairs of shoes per day and commanded a very high wage. Skilled journeymen earned between $20 to $40 (equiv. $1,138.91 today) a week.

(Matzeliger's Lasting Machine Image via CTW Photography)

Jan Earnst Matzeliger was a young engineer keen to develop a turn shoe sewing machine. At first, he worked secretly because shoemakers were strongly opposed to the introduction of more machinery into their industry. Handlasters dreaded any attempt to build a machine to replace their contribution. Matzeliger established a small experimental shop and invested all his time and money to build a prototype. Using discarded wood and old cigar boxes he picked up from the street, Matzeliger efforts were disappointing with failure dogging his every footstep. Dismissed as a dreamer and openly scorned by fellow workers the inventor carried on regardless. A fellow engineer and critic of his efforts offered him $50 to buy his first working model, Matzeliger refused to sell but took consolation he must be on the right track. When he finished the second prototype, the same engineer offered him $1500. He applied for a patent and it was granted by the United States Patent Office in 1883. Matzeliger was now convinced success was within his grasp and refused the money and carried on to finish his third model. A third and still better machine was patented in 1884.

(Sidney W. Winslow Image via CTW Photography)

This proved so satisfactory, Sidney W. Winslow bought stock in the new enterprise and hired experts to assist Matzeliger to build a fourth model. Exhausted by his efforts and not used to the New England climate, Matzeliger’s health failed him whilst trying complete the task and tragically, the inventor died aged 36 from tuberculosis in 1889. He received 5 patents, 3 of them posthumously. The Matzeliger's machine was the first to combine many complex steps and produce a shoe indistinguishable from the hand lasted footwear. Working five times faster than a human laster, the device could perfectly last 700 pair of women's shoes per day. The Matzeliger machine was greatly improved by Sherman Ladd.

(United Shoe Machinery Company Image via Wikipedia)

In 1887, Consolidated Lasting Machine Company, now owned the patent, and Sidney W. Winslow and George W. Brown were intent on making the Matzeliger lasting machine a commercial success. The company soon merged with 39 other shoe machine manufacturers to form the United Shoe Machinery Company , and completely dominated the market for shoemaking machines.

(the lasting machine Image via

At first the introduction of lasting machines into factories met with resistance as hand lasters feared for their livelihood. Soon there were violent strikes with pitch battles outside some shoe factories. In the end, when the hand lasters learned to run the machines, which really made their work easier and more productive, peace was restored. The introduction and use of shoe machinery, and the development of the factory system, led to increase in wages, shortening of hours of labour, and improvement of product. Hand lasting ceased to be used in mass produced footwear.

(Shoemaking Image via BBC)

Matzeliger's lasting machine replaced the hand methods that had been employed since the days of the first American shoemakers. The introduction and successful application of machinery, the increased division of labour, the improved methods and instruments adopted and employed by modern craftsmen , and the use of new materials heralded the beginning of mass production of shoes in the Western World

Gannon FA 1911 Shoe Making Old and New Newcombe and Gus Mass.
History – The lasting machine Shoegazing
Leno J B 1885 The art of boot and shoemaking Crosby, Lockheart & Co London

Friday, September 11, 2020

Kamala Harris in cool kicks

(Kamala Harris Image via Washingtonpost)

Go girl !

Thursday, September 10, 2020

A brief history of shoe making in Australia

( Convict Shoe Image Via Hyde Park Barracks , Sydney Living Museum)

It was well documented among the penal colony population that boots and shoes wore out quickly due to the harsh conditions. From 1790 convict shoemakers made large quantities of footwear from imported leathers. Problems of mass production were hampered because of the lack of raw materials. Local cattle hides were not strong enough for soling, although kangaroo skins were successfully treated for uppers in 1805. Australian convicts were rarely issued socks and their prison issue shoes were straight lasted. Part of their penance was having to break in their shoes.

(Video Courtesy: Sydney Living Museums Youtube Channel)

Convicts who were by trade shoe makers (Snobs) could not keep up with the demand and made shoes for private commission as well as for fellow inmates. Many continued in their trade once released from prison and quickly established themselves as saddlers and leather tradesmen. In the 1828 census the outback had one shoemaker for every 236 inhabitants. Western Australia became a penal colony much later and received a small numbers of juvenile offenders from 1842. It was not formally constituted as a penal colony until 1849.

(Coldbath Fields Prison Image Via Pinterest)

Convicts were taught to make boots and shoes in the West Australian prisons with many taking their trade to the towns and bush on release. Convict transportation to WA stopped in 1868.

At first Australian made shoes were expensive and most settlers continued to send to England for their shoes well into the 1830s. A decade later, Australian shoe making had improved and outback boot makers were making quality hard wearing boots for rural Australians.

(Barefoot Image Via Pinterest)

It was common practice among the early Scots and Irish immigrants to go bare foot; this was by choice and not borne through adversity. However, by the 1830s it had become a mark of deprivation in the eastern colonies to be without footwear. The absence of shoe makers in Perth Western Australia in the early 19th century is apparent by this letter sent to England from a lady in Perth, Western Australia (1830):

“many respectable females with their children are going - barefoot - not a shoe maker can be got to work."

Absence of shoemakers and money to buy shoes meant many Australians went barefoot. Shoe mending (cobbling) fell mainly on women in Australian towns and country areas. Settlers in the more tropical climates started to dress for the conditions and men in Brisbane abandoned shoes for sandals and the more middle class wore plaited leather shoes for ventilation.

(Top boots Image Via Pinterest)

New comers to the colonies were often met with a stare because they sported the latest European fashions. In the eighteenth century Top boots were all the rage in London but had little practical use in Australia. New arrivals immediately acquired the bush dress of rough clothes and equivalent manners. New comers to the colonies were often met with a stare and cries of derision because they sported the latest European fashions. In the eighteenth century Top boots were all the rage in London but had little practical use in Australia. New arrivals immediately acquired the bush dress of rough clothes and equivalent manners.

(1800 women's fashion Image Via Pinterest)

The clothes worn by working people were usually ready made in heavier materials with women's clothes made of softer fabrics. Rural dress was more practical and governed by shortages. Australian men traditionally wore something special on Sundays. Children wore cast offs or adult style clothes made to smaller sizes. The working class bought their shoes at the slop shops which catered for the cheap and cheerful.

(Brisbane Queensland Image Via Pinterest)

Towards the end of the 19th century, middle-class Australian women became preoccupied with fashion and the new urban bourgeois shopped at the new stores in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. They employed agents in Europe and Britain to conduct their import business.

(John Lobb Bootmaker Image Via Wikiwand)

John Lobb trained as a bootmaker in London before moving to Australia to try his luck in the goldfields. Whilst he never found fortune in gold he did strike on the idea of making hollow heeled boots for prospectors to hide their gold. The idea caught on and Lobb set himself up in business in Sydney in 1858. When the Great Exhibition came along in 1862 he sent a pair of his boots along and won a gold medal for their quality. Twelve months later he sent a pair of his riding boots to the Prince of Wales and was awarded a Royal Warrant. He returned to London and established a business " John Lobb, Bootmaker" which continues to trade as the world's most famous bespoke shoemaking establishment.

(Sheboygan Boot Shoe Company Image Via Wikiwand)

Besides European influences the effect of American styles on colonial woman's fashion was profound. None more so than the high quality shoes available around about 1890. By 1894 the American shoes had replaced British footwear in the Australian Market. The mass production stateside made them cheaper but also the range of styles and leathers were much bigger. There was an American Shoe Company in George Street Sydney selling modish forms of footwear.

(Antique shoo Image Via dressedwell)

Australian footwear industry in the mid nineteenth century faced similar problems to clothing manufacturing. Colonial made boots and shoes commanded the local market in New South Wales from 1840-1852. The period also recorded high productivity in South Australia and shoemakers were able to provide much of the footwear for the local market. Adelaide had four tanneries in full production in 1843, and colonial articles were reputedly preferred to import ones.

The British manufacturers made a deliberate attempt to capture Australian trade by flooding the market. Low manufacturing costs and mechanisation meant the UK could produce footwear at low prices even with high transport costs. These imported shoes were not always suited to the climate. Often the leather would become mildewed on the outward journey. Colonial made boots and shoes commanded the local market in New South Wales from 1840-1852. The period also recorded high productivity in South Australia and shoemakers were able to provide much of the footwear for the local market. Adelaide had four tanneries in full production in 1843.

(Aston family outside Boot Maker shop Image Via Victorian Collections)

Local manufactures alleged the colonial boots were longer lasting. An Australian made working boot would last on average one calendar month whereas the English slops were doomed by two to three weeks. Australian made footwear was more expensive than the cheaper imports. By the end of the 1850s prices women's boots cost between 3/6 to 7/- for British boots; whereas the colonial made equivalent cost 12/6. The decade between 1850 & 1860 saw a decline in the footwear industry in New South Wales due to high wage claims caused by the gold rush. Boot makers' wages had doubled between 1840 and 1860. By 1870 Sydney boot makers were producing 15,000 pairs of boots each week.

(Clarks shoes Image Via )

Once mechanisation was established bootmakers could cater for the neglected market of children's shoes (although Clarks of England had been exporting children’s shoes to Australia since 1842). Shoes were made for men and children rather than women. Boot and shoemaking was one of the most successful of the garment industries because the product was produced to be profitable, hard wearing and practical items. By 1890s the Melbourne manufacturers had converted to a modern system of mechanisation. Concentration of practical footwear meant the fashionable imports remained popular with consumers.

A home grown fashion industry tried to establish itself and a Melbourne firm responded by producing shoes made from kangaroo skins. The Kangaratta was popular partly because kangaroo skin looks like superior glace kid. Unfortunately, by the mid-1890s the US had captured the Australian market.

(Shoe making industrial revolution Image Via Pinterest)

In 1858 new technologies had been introduced in the States which completely revolutionized the manufacture of mass produced boots and shoes. At first these were poor quality and scarcely lasted more than 12 days but eventually quality improved. American manufacturers over produced for their domestic market and became a major exporter during the late 19th and early 20th century. A spike came with the Gold Rushes (US 1848- 1855; and Aus 1850s - 1890s). During this time the population of Australia quadrupled and the Australian market continued to be flooded with cheap US imports. Australian manufacturers found it difficult to compete until tariffs were introduced then they started producing their own footwear. The effect of American styles on colonial woman's fashion was profound and by 1894 the American shoes had replaced British footwear in the Australian Market.

(Making shoes Image Via twisted history)

Making shoes is a complex business involving many subsidiaries and footwear operations sprung up in many metropolitan areas across Australia including: Ballarat, Geelong, Goulburn, Hobart, Perth and Adelaide. By the beginning of the 20th century good quality leather was abundant and many new Australian companies started making quality boots for farmers. The onset of World War, meant Australian boot makers went into war production mode, manufacturing footwear for the Australian military. Many of these companies have survived producing quality footwear for mountaineering and industrial needs. The First World War saw a massive demand for Australian footwear and by the 20s there were large Australian footwear companies with many hundreds of employees.

(RM Williams Image Via The Tailor)

During the Depression these firms went to the wall and in their wake came smaller boutique companies who thrived due to demand of an increasing population and the Second World War. By the 60s the entire Australian economy was expanding, fuelled by large scale immigration and technical and scientific innovation, as well as the increasing availability of raw materials after protracted wartime shortages. As the 80s and 90s approached there was a marked decline in Australian produced footwear and more dependency on imports from Asia. Currently local manufacturers produce about 12% of the footwear purchased in Australia with much of the production now done off shore.

(Video Courtesy: Erin Jane Youtube Channel)

Maynard M 1994 Fashioned from Penury: dress as cultural practice in colonial Australia Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Michell L 1997 Stepping out: three centuries of shoes Sydney: Powerhouse Publishing

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Reviewed 10/09/2020