Thursday, October 28, 2021

Icthyotherapy (fish pedicure)

(Fish pedicure Image via PETA )

Fish pedicure originated in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran and the healing and beauty properties of Garra Rufa fish (often referred to as Doctor Fish) have been known for hundreds of years. From the early 1800s tourists flocked to the Turkish Spa Pools in Kangal for fish nibbling sessions. Once the Turkish government realised the commercial worth of exporting Kangal garra rufa fish they banned the practice in 1996. By this time Doctor Fish Spas had become well established in Japan before rapidly spreading throughout Asia, mushrooming in countries like Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia. At the beginning of the millennium Doctor Fish Spas had opened in America. As a result of world wide limited supplies of the Doctor fish there are only a few companies in the world to offer first line or F1 original Turkish Kangal garra rufa fish, footbaths. Many of the garra rufa fish used in otherspa facilities are either cross-bred look-a-like fish or garra rufa fish from the second or further generation in line.

(Garra rufa Image via Aquadiction )

Garra rufa (sometimes called Doctor Fish) are a type of ray-finned fish in the family Cyprinidae. Garras are slim with a flat belly and a sucking mouth. Kangal garra rufa fish carry an enzyme, Dithranol, in the mouth. Dithranol is sometimes used in the treatment of psoriasis. Dipping feet into special baths containing up to 200 tiny toothless fish which then proceed to nibble away old skin cells leaving the new skin refreshed and invigorated became popular especially with tourists and subsequently spread to most other countries. Growing concerns over faux fish being used Dr Foot Spas were banned in the US for several years.This was later relinquished on the provision original garra rufa fish were used. As therapeutic fish nibbling has spread to Europe and the UK similar controls have been in place to resist the practice to F1 fish only. As economies dipped novelty fish pedicures were viewed with relish as revenue enhancer by struggling nail salons. However genuine concerns have continued because the fish could be source of cross contamination of blood borne viruses such as Hep C. The only way to prevent this would be to use the fish shoals once and once only which is cost prohibitive. Hence once again the practice of fish nibbling has been banned in several of the United States and Canadian provinces as cosmetology regulators believe the practice is unsanitary.

(Skin anatomy Image via pinterest)

Human skin is made up of tiny cells, which are divided into two major layers. The lower Dermis contains all the blood vessels, nerves and fat lies below than the outer skin or epidermis which is an avascular (bloodless) layer.

(Epidermis Image via Science Alert)

The epidermis is very thin but made up of five distinct levels. As the lower cells pass upwards to the surface they become more compressed until they are cell-less flakes of keratin (protein). In order for the older keratin flakes to separate, squames (individual flakes) need a high water content which is the function of moisturising creams i.e. to add this water to the cells. In the normal course of events old squames leave the skin to be replaced by new ones so in effect like other animals we shed our skin every 28 days.

( Callus Image via Helth )

When the epidermis is damaged it may start to over produce Keritin (i.e. hyperkeratosis) and this presents either as callus or corns. Callus is a general distribution of hard skin (usually painless) whereas corns are more concentrated and can be painful. Biochemical factors in the blood determine the growth rate of the epidermal cells (which vary with individuals) and so damaged cells reproduce like normal cells but at a faster rate. This explains why callus and corns return when paired and the only way to deal with the concentrated mass of keratin (hyperkeratosis) is to physically scrape it away. Something we have known since the time of the Ancient Greeks when the original surgical scalpel was first invented to remove hard skin.

(Fish pedicure Image via )

The key to any successful treatment is the safe removal of the keratin flakes and fish that nibble away skin cells, whilst novel, can be a valid way to control mild hyperkeratosis. Its usefulness is usually restricted to callus care and hence epi-dermabrasion by fish appears more in the range of beauty therapy than medical treatment but nibbling fish have been successfully used in the care of psoriatic skins (affects about 2-3% of the World Population).

( Garra Rufa Image via Tutti)

There are two species of doctor fish; Garra Rufa and Cyprinion macrostomus , and they belong to the carp and minnow family. The fish have no teeth so cannot nibble (more importantly break into the dermis) but have a strong suck. Attracted to the many nutrients within human skin cells including those produced in healing wounds they swarm the skin plaque and proceed to lick it once it has been softened by the water. The constant ‘sucking’ by the younger fish has a gentle massaging effect on the recipient giving them a gently tingling sensation. Doctor fish can be used in the management of psoriasis and according to experts leave healthy keratin and only consume the affected and dead areas of the skin. Once old cells are removed (denuded) the clinician better access any underlying lesions which then may be treated in a more conventional way. F1 Kangal garra rufa fish used to feed on the skin of patients with psoriasis and eczema are breed in outdoor pools and only used under special conditions. Currently, there is no strong evidence to support the routine use of ichthyotherapy for psoriasis or other cutaneous diseases.

( Fish pedicure Image via pinterest )

At first, the introduction of fish pedicure to mainstream beauty therapy caused no major alarm to authorities mainly due to the inability of the fish to damage healthy skin and no cases of cross infection were ever reported. Health authoritiesbecame more concerned however, at the potential to spread infections between people through open wounds. In the UK the Health Protection Agency (HPA) started to look more closely at fish pedicure and already some US states have banned them. HPA published a report Guidance on the management of the public health risks from fish pedicures (2011). Their report echoed the potential for cross infection and the need for consumers to bare this in mind when having a fish pedicure. Salons are recommended to use UV-lit tanks which are constantly filtered to keep them clear of disease. However not all salons are registered and policing standards presents a major challenge.

Watery Footnote
Scientific research demonstrates spa fish experience both behaviour and physiological changes as a result of skin nibbling. Levels of cortisol in overstocked tanks (similar to the numbers found in foot spas) was significantly higher than fish in optimally stocked environments. By comparison, other fish such trout, their cortisol levels drop when stocked in overcrowded conditions. Cortisol is a hormone created by the adrenal glands and scientists believe cortisol levels are a good indicator of chronic stress in fish.

(Video Courtesy:Lila Whatley by Youtube Channel)
Guidance on the management of the public health risks from fish pedicures (2011) Health Protection Agency
Shih T, Khan S, Shih S, et al. 2020 Fish Pedicure: Review of Its Current Dermatology Applications Cureus 12(6)

Reviewed 28/10/2021

Blundstone Boots: The Original

( Blundstone boots Image via GC Township )

The Blundstone company was set up by several free settlers who emigrated from England to Tasmania. John Blundstone was a coachbuilder until 1870, when he and his wife Eliza, started importing high quality English boots and shoes, then later manufacturing boots for working men in Hobart, Tasmania. The first Blundstones were lace-up work boots. In 1892, John and his son, Sylvanus, formed J. Blundstone & Son, and manufactured boots. The company's importation arm was run by John's other son, William, as W.H. Blundstone & Co. Both companies initially prospered but by the turn of the century, J. Blundstone & Son, was sold to the Cane Family in 1901; and W.H. Blundstone & Co. went bankrupt in 1909.

( Blundstone boots Image via

The Cane family ran Blundstone & Co and had a big boost in 1914 when it began supplying conventional laced service boots the army. However, during the Great Depression the company's profitability declined sharply. In 1934 they sold the firm to James T.J. and Thomas Cuthbertson owners of a rival shoemaking and importing business. The brothers retained the Blundstone name and amalgamated their companies' manufacturing operations.

( Blundstone Shoes Image via INED )

Keen to expand they bought Blundstone and kept the name to avoid confusion as there was an existing business by the name of Cuthbertson in Hobart. World War II saw another great demand for boots, and after the end of the war, they started to produce a line of "Mountain Masters" boots for farmers.

( The Station Boot Image via pinterest)

After the discovery of vulcanisation of rubber and the inclusion of elasticated rubber gussets into boots in 1852, the Elastic Ankle Boot, became very popular and was both fashionable (Balmoral Boot and Congress Boot) as well as functional (Paddock Boot). Australian work boots were made with a wholecut upper (seamless), elastic siding, and pull tabs at both the front and back of the topline. Many brands including Rossi and RM Williams competed with Blundstone for pull on work boots.

( Blunstone Factory Image via Saraswat Pathology )

In 1953. Harold Cuthbertson took over as managing director and for the next half a century Blundstone ran successfully as a company producing a diverse range of affordable footwear for the domestic market as well as exporting to a limited number of other countries.

( Blunnies Image via pinterest )

In 1968, Blundstone introduced the 500 series (colloquially known as "Blunnies"), and were laceless, elastic-sided, ankle-length boots. Made from durable weatherproofed leather, with a cushioned midsole, and slip-proof outsole, Blunnies were ideal work boots for the heat, sun, mud, dust, river crossings, and other hazards encountered in the Australian outback. Ironically the elastic sided 500 series started to appear in London boutiques in the late 60s as work boots like Doc Martens, became chic. Blundstones were designed for men but women could wear them too, and fashion conscious young Australian women started wearing Blunnies as unisex fashion prevailed. The company began exporting in 1969, beginning with Papua New Guinea.

(Blunstone Boots Image via pinterest)

In the 1990s, Blundstone started to make dress boots with a slimmer profile, a more exaggerated heel rise, and a slightly square toe. New materials, such as blue suede and white leather, were tried. Although these did not prove to be an enduring success, they did create a buzz and established Blundstone's appeal. Many overseas travellers to Australia started buying the elastic-sided work boots as leisure shoes and taking them home. Soon the company received orders from the US and Europe, but with all production still in Hobart at that time and the company was unable to service demand.

( L'Offical Image via )

In 1993, Blundstone expanded their wellington boot production and opened a small manufacturing and distribution facility in New Zealand. Later in 2000, they acquired the Auckland based, John Bull Footwear (established in 1934). Blundstone introduced new, more stylish lines into the John Bull collection.

( Blundstone's gumboot Image via Blunstone )

A year later the company moved their gumboot operation back to Australia, while their Auckland factory continued to make John Bull boots. In 2005, Blundstone's gumboot operation was relocated to Hobart, Tasmania.

( Blunstone 1413 Image via A One Clothing)

In the early 1990s, Blundstone was making about 500,000 boots a year and by the end of the decade Blunnies was a range of children’s shoes introduced at Christmas and was based on the No. 500, the tiny boots became an instant sensation around the world. The company also introduced other new products including sandals, hiking boots, and women's safety shoes.

( Blunstone 897 Image via MyDeal )

New designs for both men and women were produced, including the unisex Mountain Master hiking boots and "Women's Work," tailored specifically to fit women's feet. By now Blundstone boots had caught on in the United States, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Israel and Italy.

( Tap Dogs Image via pinterest )

Blundstone has never used celebrity endorsement to promote their brand instead the company has always been keen to promote itself as an Australian manufacturer of quality workwear. In the mid ‘90s, Australian dance team, The Tap Dogs, became a worldwide sensation wearing Blundstones in their energetic routines. Creator, and choreographer Dein Perry decided to create a contemporary show around his industrial work experience. They were catapulted into international acclaim at the Edinburgh Festival and London's Saddler's Wells. When the Tap Dogs went onto tour the world, they were seen by over 12 million people. The Tap Dog's performers also featured in the Opening Ceremony of the 2000 Sydney Olympics.

(Video Courtesy: Tap Dogs Official by Youtube Channel)

The fashion for outdoor leisure and recreation became popular in the US, and comfortable boots were at a premium with many high profile celebrities photographed wearing their Blunnies.

( Blunstone David Beckham Image via

The outsoles were made from dual density polyurethane. This synthetic material is hardwearing and light weight but when not stored in ideal conditions can disintegrate caused by moisture (hydrolysis). Once recognised the company changed their manufacturing process.

( blundstones sole disintegrate Image via

To make Australian manufacturing more competitive globally, several governmental initiatives including The Button (Car) Plan were implemented between 1984 and 2010, when the Textile, Clothing and Footwear (TCF) tariff was finally cut to 5 per cent. Unfortunately, the effect in tariffs cuts and industry assistance resulted in most of the Australian production in the footwear industry going overseas. After much deliberation, in 2007 Blundstone followed the trend and send most of its boot manufacturing to Thailand and India. All management and admin remained in Australia and the company kept their revamped gumboot factory in Tasmania. Eventually the majority of boots and shoes were made in Vietnam, Mexico and Romania.

( Blunstone celebrates 150th anniversary Image via Fashionunited UK )

From humble beginnings, Blundstone has grown into one of the world’s most recognisable boot brands. Despite this success, the company remains Tasmanian and retains its family values. They are in the process of becoming a global brand and have opened a factory in Mexico for the North American market.

(Video Courtesy: ABC News (Australia) by Youtube Channel)

Reviewed 18/10/2021

Tuesday, October 26, 2021

Pontifical Red Shoes: A potted history

(The dyeing art Image via Pure Elegance )

In the ancient world well before synthetics all dye stuffs were natural. Some were easily attainable whilst others were very rare or time consuming and difficult to produce. Dyestuffs were traded as commodities.

( Tyrian Purple Image via Tiskilion Yarn )

The most difficult colour to achieve was purple (Tyrian Purple – Phoencians of Tyre) and was made from shellfish and exclusive rights to wear imperial "purple" belonged to the emperors. In the ancient world the premium colours were purple, blue and bright shades of red. Wearing exotic and rare items became a proclamation of status and at times when greater wealth for the middle class sumptuary laws were passed to restrict colours to high social rank.

(Rennaisance Clothing Image via pinterest)

During the Rennaisance a growing middle class flaunted these laws by slashing their outer clothing to reveal banned materials and colours as underclothing. Eventually the importance of colour lost its status sufficiently now we hardly give it thought.

(pontifical sandals Image via Brewminate)

As the Christian faith grew in popularity, emperors bestowed many privileges upon the Popes including the right to wear imperial insignia and colours about their dress. (Donation of Constantine 750-800 ). According to Braun (1912), by the 10th century pontifical sandals were slipper-like and covered only the toes and the heel fastened to the foot by straps. Ecleseastical Slippers was made of black leather and worn with white undones made of linen. Circa 1290, high clerics took to wearing coloured socks including violet (Hyacinth colour), the trendy liturgical colour of the time, but as the years passed red socks became more common. The red socks were not symbolic but instead a natural consequence of rich imported luxury of all kind.

( Constantine Image via Atlas Obscura )

Constantine (c. 272 – 337) reigned during the 4th century CE and was instrumental in actively promoting Christianity throughout the Roman Empire. During the post-Constantine era, campagi and udones were worn as a mark of distinction by certain persons of rank, and these gradually became customary among the higher clergy. The sandals and stockings became a specifically episcopal vestment about the tenth century Braun (1912). Under "Sovereign's law" promulgated by Charlemagne (742-814 AD) all clerics had to wear sandals when celebrating mass.

(Pontifical sandals Image via Liturgical Arts Journal)

According to early renaissance paintings the elite feet of the higher clergy were encased in beautiful red shoes. High ecclesiastics distanced themselves from the common masses by conspicuous refinement and extravagant ornamentation. By the time of Pope Nicholas V (1397 – 1455), shoes had replaced sandals and the only difference between the Pope and his bishops was the former had the right to have a cross on their shoes. This relates to kissing the Pope’s feet as a mark of respect and refers to foot washing.

( Papal Shoes Image via Wikipedia )

Although humble priests occupied an important position in ancient societies most almost invariably performed their offices, barefoot. This was thought to have been an outward and visible sign of their inward, humility and purity. Clerical sandals when worn were simple and devoid of any fashion and symbolised the cleric's separation from worldly vanities. With the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the barbarian invasions, craftsmanship declined in Europe and common people went barefoot or wore rough clogs. During the Dark Ages shoes were crude protection with little emphasis given to fashion. Many medieval priests and Franciscan monks in contrast to higher clergy wore wooden sandals as a sign of disregard for material luxury. On pilgrimages many went barefoot out of choice to do penance for their sins, whilst others wore sandals as a token gesture.

( Conclave Image via BBC)

Cardinals selecting the new pope behind the closed doors of the Sistine Chapel tradionally wear red leather shoes. No one appears to know the exact origins of these shoes but they became very popular in the 17th & 18th Century. The red shoes are thought to be based upon imperial red/purple shoes and the availability of sumptuous clothing.

(John Paul I in state Image via pinterest)

On the passing ofthe Pontiff, his body lies in state dressed in his funeral garments, which consist of a white cassock, scarlet chasuble (long sleeveless liturgical vestment) and red silk shoes. Seems to be some confusion however as to whether Pope John Paul II wore red shoes or brown shoes. Many believe he broke with the tradition and wore brown shoes given to him by a friend as a Christmas present. By this action it is thought he was expressing his identity with common people, so typical of the man.

(sexy satin heels Image via Shopee )

The origins of sexy red shoes probably mirrors ecclesiastical attire and may have been cheekily worn by irreverent courtesans. As condemnation of women and marginalization of women led by the pulpit Jezebel shoes become stereotypical and eventually glorified in 20th century Hollywood.

Braun, J. 1912 Episcopal Sandals . In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

More Information
Tribe S 2018 Pontifical Sandals: A brief history and consideration Liturgical Arts Journal

Reviewed 26/10/2021

Monday, October 25, 2021

A short history of Brogues

( Oxford Brogues Image via pinterest)

Brogan is thought to be an old Scot’s word for shoe. It is unclear whether this was a simple bag of leather or a clog but today brogues are Oxford type shoes (lacing) which because of their sturdiness are associated with outward-bound activities such as hunting, shooting and fishing (Pattison & Cawthorn, 1997). The shoes are connected to the aristocracy but evolved from one of the simplest yet most practical peasant styles.

(Brogues and shoes Image via Brogues and shoes )

The Cuaran was a crude shoe originally made from rawhide fresh off the beast and worn by labourers in Ireland & the Highlands of Scotland (Wright, 1922).The skins of deer, cow, horse, and occasionally seal skins were used, often with the animal's hair still on. By the end of the 17th century half tanned leather was used. The people of Aran called them, Pampooties and Lowlanders called them Revilins. Originally these were heelless and kept in place by laced thongs tied behind and before. Sometimes for added comfort hay or straw insoles were fitted into the shoe to prevent chafing (Ledger). The holes in the uppers were functional and allowed water to drain through as the walker forded streams and hiked across bogs. Pampooties were more a bag worn around the foot with no stitching and bound together with leather thong. By the 1700s Most working class Celts wore rough brogues.

(Ghillies Image via pinterest )

The Ghillie was more or less a simple bag of leather for the foot with leather loops sewn to the quarters and did not lace through eyelets like the brogue. The special lacing system gave the shoe improved waterproofing. Much later the term Ghillie was used to describe a land manager in Scotland but few would ever wear Ghillie shoes.

(Lothian Highland Ghillies Image via Celtic Corner Store)

Modern ghillies are worn in Scottish Country dancing

(Pampooties Image via pinterest )

In the 17th century the Squirarchy had heels added and merged the styles of the Cuaran and Ghillie. These hardier shoes were ideal for deer stalking, hunting and fishing. Circa 1640 a shawl tongue was added with a fringe to lend a touch of elegance. It was thought Irish landowners started to decorate their shoes with patterned sequence of holes. In the original shoes the holes served a pragmatic purpose i.e. to allow water to flow through. For good luck the designs incorporated coded symbols. As soon as the style became associated with the gentry the holes became more decorative features (Vass & Molnar, 1999). Later when the holes only served for decorative purposes leather uppers were rubbed with melted candle wax (or tallow) to improve waterproofing. The brogue became refined without losing its sturdiness as the style crossed over into main fashion.

(17th century latchets Image via pinterest)

Lachet shoes are constructed using a last and can be made with or without heels. Sometimes the latchet shoes had large openings between the quarters and the vamp. This was used by the well off to show off their expensive silk hose. Shoes worn by poor people were "closed". In the 17th century, the promise of hobnailed latchet shoes was a major reason many men joined the army and Scottish infantry captains wore latchet shoes in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the British Civil War (1638-1651). These however, were designed for riding and not walking.

(Irish brogues Image via )

Brogues started as latchet shoes made as turnshoes, with a stiff sole stitched on after turning, sometimes there was a low heel added. These were favoured by the Scottish and Irish mercenaries who fought for numerous armies throughout Europe in the 17th century. Turnshoes are stitched inside out then turned right side out with the sole and heel added later. This method of construction protects the stitching from wear. Brogues increased their popularity in the eighteenth century when the machine was invented in the US to stitch uppers. Outside brogues were traditionally brown with black brogues kept strictly for formal dress occasions only. In Scotland and Ireland, the women of the upper class kept a pair of brogues for dress up wear. At the turn of the twentieth century, the Scottish lairds wore their brogues with a fringed tongue. The laces that fastened the shoes ran through slots formed by turning the top edges of the leather under, in a refined form of gillie. This made them more waterproof.

(Johnstone and Murphy Conard Cap Toe Image via Ted's Clothiers)

The English Style adopted the brogue and the fashion crossed the Atlantic, early 1900. In the 1920's the style grew increasingly elegant and was soon worn by women on outward-bound pursuits as the shoe became associated with sport. Its apotheosis was reached in the 1930's when the world's arbiter of fashion the Prince of Wales wore it as a golfing shoe and in a lighter form in suede with a grey lounge suit. The shoe became known as the spectator (or co-respondent in the UK) when made in two coloured leathers.

(Wingtips Image via pinterest )

Two-tone leather brogue style was favoured by the fashion conscious during the jazz era. Later screen greats such as Fred Astaire and Gene Kelly wore the highbred brogues in many of their famous dance routines.

(Saddle Shoes Image via Jazame)

Another variation on the theme was the saddle shoe. Originally created for adults and children in 1910 the modified brogue was made from white buckskin with a black or brown leather instep (hence the saddle). By the 50's this style of shoe had been adopted by the young and was worn by both girls and boys. The former with bobby socks.

(Elvis Presley Image via pinterest)

The style became official when a young Elvis Presley appeared in the film 'Jailhouse Rock" wearing white buckskin saddle shoes. Famous manufacturers like Florsheim have continued to make brogues in various guises. In 1996 this company developed a shoe, which had been chemically treated and did not require to be polished. Their promotional people reckoned ivy leaguers spent ten minutes per day shining shoes. The shoes were promoted with this in my mind and the potential buyer was enlightened as to what they could do with the 400 hours saved over their working career. In proper circles the brogue or semi brogue should not be worn after six o’clock in the evening.

(Brogues 2021 Image via Fashion Beans )

Today there are two styles, the single brogue which consists of, an upper and a sole and the double brogue which has an added strip of leather (or welt) between the upper and the sole. Styles differed between full brogue and half brogue (or semi brogue). The significant difference between the two is the toecap; the former is winged and straight on the latter.

(Video Courtesy: Andrew Wrigley Youtube Channel)

Barthelemy A 2001 Brogans In Benstock S & Ferriss S (eds) Footnotes: On shoes New Brunswick Rutgers University Press 179-196.
Ledger FE Put your foot down Melsham : Colin Venton
Mc Dowell C 1994 Shoes : Fashion and fantasy London: Thames & Hudson
Pattison A & Cawthorn N 1997 A century of shoes : Icons of style in the 20th century Universal International 84-93.
Pratt L & Wooley L 1999 Shoes London: Victoria and Albert Museum
Rossi WA (ed) 2000 The complete footwear dictionary Malabar: Kreiger Publishing
Vass L & Molnar M 1999 Handmade shoes for men Cologne: Konemann.
Wilson E 1969 A history of shoe fashions London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons
Wright T 1922 The romance of the shoe London: CJ Farncomb & Son

Reviewed 25/10/2021

Sunday, October 24, 2021

Wooden shoes in antiquity

( Etruscan bronze and wood sandals Image via Bonhams )

Although light sandals carved from smooth wood were discovered in the tombs of ancient Egyptians it is generally thought it was the Greeks then the Etruscans that used pattens and clogs. The Etruscans were renowned in antiquity for their distinctive footwear and wooden shoes were exquisitely carved and worn high (platform style) to keep the feet dry. Etruscan craftsmen used bronze sheets and small bronze nails to build the platform. Small iron pins were often inserted around the outside edge of the bottom of the sole and the shoes were held next to the foot with leather straps. The high platform soles with gilded laces were prized by Etruscan and Greek women alike. It was common to be buried with your favourite sandals and excavations of 6th century BC Etruscan tombs have revealed imrints of the owners footprints on their shoes.

(Ashmolean Museum Image via pinterest )

A hinge at the instep made the back section flap, and the click-clack sound was part of their appeal. The women of Vuci walked the city cobled streets in their platforms shoes. The unique sound of the wooden shoe or tile became fashionable and 'kapkaps' became associated particularly with the Eastern Mediterranean. The fashion was most often found in the coastal areas of Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt, from the Nile to the Euphrates.

( Etruscan woamn Image via British Museum)

The wooden shoes were highly decorated and included inlaid mother of pearl and silver. Some had jingles others woven sheaths to cover the forefoot.

(Roman Overshoes Image via pinterest)

Overshoes made from wood (pattens) were also know in Roman Times and worn by people living in the Ardennes region (Belgium and Luxembourg and parts of France). In Roman Times the Ardenne was inhabited by the Gauls and the wooden overshoe became known as "galoche" which later evolved into galoshes. Wooden pattens were serviceable, hardwearing and provided protection from the wet ground.

( Roamn Bath slipper Image via pinterest)

Romans wore wooden clogs in the hot baths and these were referred to as "Tyrrhenian sandals." Wooden shoes were also worn in other parts of the world such as in Japan where young girls went to the temple wearing wooden clogs or getas.

( Turkish Bath Clogs Image via pinterest )

Turkish clogs were held next to the foot with a toe grip, similar to sandals. These were platform wooden shoes often 3-4 inches from the ground and were worn with tabi, a special sock. The Geta were made from nezuko wood because it was waterproof, lightweight and hardwearing. Reference to clogs was common place in the songs, poems and novels of the Meiji period at the turn of this century. For centuries Samuari warriors wore geta and zori sandals.

Further information
Blair Brownlee A and Turfa J M 2001 Etruscan Sandals: Fancy Footwear from the Sixth Century BC Expedition Magazine 43.3 (2001) Penn Museum, 2001 Web. 16 Oct 2021
Kippen C 2021 Wooden shoes traces the history of clogs through the centuries. L. Bonfante (ed) 1986 Etruscan Life and Afterlife Wayne State University Press.