Sunday, August 05, 2018

The Secret Language Of Feet according to Professor Geoffrey Beattie

Several years ago, Big Brother psychologist, Professor Geoffrey Beattie was challenged by British shoe-makers, Jeffery-West to de-code the tell-tale signs men and women use with their feet to convey messages. Beattie believes feet convey a fascinating channel of non-verbal communication and can reveal a great deal about our personality, what we think of the person we’re talking to and even our emotional and psychological state.

Feet convey subconscious messages because they sit below eye-level and we are less aware of our lower extremities than our hands and face. For example, when a woman is sexually attracted to her partner, she is less likely to sit cross legged The more open her posture, the more attracted she is. Men are less likely to use their feet to signal sexual attraction instead, they use their eyes and tilt their head and lean forward.

(Video Courtesy: MU Health Youtube Channel)

Contrary to what was previously thought (foot and leg movements increased when people are lying), they lie unnaturally still. The brain unconsciously attempts to control parts of the body which may reflect nervousness. Beattie suggests if you want to tell if someone is lying, establish a baseline by talking to them normally and watch what they do with their feet. Then ask the tricky question you want to know the truth about and watch their feet. Look for a decrease in movement, if you see it, the likelihood is that they are fibbing.

When men are genuinely anxious they show their nerves by increasing their foot movements. As they become more comfortable and more relaxed, their foot movements lessen. Women, however, somehow manage to inhibit the movement of their feet when nervous and only when they become more comfortable in a situation do they allow their feet to release nervous energy and move freely.

Alpha males and females have a low level of leg and foot movement because they like to dominate and control the conversation and the same goes for their body. Extroverts do likewise but for different reasons, while shy people have frequent movements. Arrogant people also keep their bodies more in check and use less foot movement.

Women , it appears do judge men on the shoes. Social judgement on the basis of footwear is made fast and unconsciously, based upon: how clean the shoes are, the style of the shoe, whether they are demonstratively cheap or expensive and whether they match the rest of what the man is wearing.

(Video Courtesy: Edge Hill University Youtube Channel)

Friday, August 03, 2018

Bigfoot: The fascination

Patagonia a semi-arid, windswept plateau, in Southern Argentina was discovered by the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521). When he and his men came ashore they found to their surprise huge footprints in the sand. These prints were half again the size of his soldiers and all was revealed when they met the Tehuelches peoples. The indigenous Indians were giants. Magellan chose the name Patagonia because in meant island of the big feet.

Large footprints have always held special fascination for humans. Almost certainly the most famous belong to the Abdominal Snowman or Yeti. These human like creatures are associated with the Himalayas and known through tracks ascribed to them and alleged encounters. Supposedly 6 to 7 ft (1.8 to 2.1 m) tall and covered with long hair. The Sasquatch or Bigfoot is also a hairy, apelike creature said to inhabit the Pacific Northwest and Canada. Reportedly sighted hundreds of times in the U.S. and Canada since the mid-19th cent. Bigfoot is variously described as standing 7to10 ft (2-3 m) tall and weighing over 500 lb (227 kg), with footprints 17 in. (43 cm) long. Many suspected Bigfoot tracks have been located. There have been some trails with over 3000 footprints going for several miles. Most scientists discount the existence of both creatures. No remains have ever been discovered and few sighting have left footprints.

(Video Courtesy: ThinkerThunker Youtube Channel)

Palaeontologists have long theorized about the existence of "Eve" a hypothetical common female ancestor who lived in Africa between 100,000 and 300,000 years ago and carried a specific form of DNA generic material passed on only through females. Such a footprint was discovered in South Africa in 1995 and is estimated at 117,000 years old (Homo erectus). The small stature female had been walking downhill on wet sand. By freak weather conditions the prints were preserved and later turned to stone.

A more controversial claim for the oldest fossil footprint ever found was discovered in 1968. The print appears to be the impression of a sandaled foot crushing a small marine animal. The fossil is dated at a staggering 300 to 600 million years ago. Another set of fossilised feet were discovered in Kentucky, the stone was estimated to be some 250 million years old. Most authorities believe humans have only been around for 2 million years and shoes have been known to be worn for seven thousand years. No one can explain these anomalies.

One of the largest male shoes ever recorded was worn by a Florida man with a very famous name, Harley Davidson. His shoes were size 42. That would be the equivalent of placing five shoes, each 8 1/2, end to end. Although he had a very famous name he was not the founder of the motor cycle company. Richard Wadlow of Alton, Illinois, grew to 8 feet 11 inches and 400 pounds before dying at age 22. His shoe size was a modest 37 AA. Fanny Mills was a farm girl in Ohio who she died in 1899. She wore a size 22 shoe and made her living by travelling around as a professional freak. She billed herself as the "the world's largest female foot" and the lasts of her shoes lasts are exhibited today. Abe Lincoln had big feet and like most of us had one foot longer than the other. He also had a club foot and needed his shoes to be made for him. His footprints are exhibited at the Lincoln National Life Foundation, Fort Wayne, Indiana.

Thursday, August 02, 2018

Catherine di Medici: Jezebel in heels

The Medici's were a powerful family that became extremely influential in Renaissance, Italy (14th - 16th century). They made their fortune through banking and commerce and dominated the political scene in Florence for over two hundred years before Catherine di Medici’s was born in 1519. At the time Florence was literally the centre of the world as far as the Europeans were concerned and trade from all over the world meant fine goods were available for local craftsmen. Clothing historians consider women’s fashion, as we now know it, was first introduced during this period.

The most popular lady’s shoes were called the Chopine and consisted of platform type shoes worn to protect the delicate fabrics from damage. Originally the elevated shoes were made to allow the wearer to rise above the mire in the streets according to some authorities. But women of substance seldom if ever walked out and preferred to be carried in sedan chairs. It is unlikely the platform shoe was anything other than a fashion opportunity to display sumptuous clothing.

Chopines became higher and higher until the shoes were 24 inches from the ground. The ladies had to be escorted when walking out and walking sticks became popular as fashion accessory for females. More and more injuries were reported until the community became so alarmed with so many miscarriages attributed to mum falling over her shoes that Chopines were banned. To add insult to injury during the fashion for chopines, men got an uncontested divorce if it was discovered new wives were smaller than their spouses had estimated because she wore heightened shoes.

A clever modification to make the chopine safer was made by hollowing out the forefoot so the heel sat higher and the fashion high heeled shoe was invented. Chopines became passé around the time of Catherine’s birth in 1519. As an adult she was petite but despite her small stature was to become a giant in European history. Catherine aged 14 married the future king of France in 1533. She had little power during the reign of her first husband and that of her first son, Francis II, but on his death in 1560 the government fell entirely into her hands. She became a dominating force throughout his reign.

The young bride arrived in Paris wearing high heeled mules which instantly took the attention of the fashion conscious and became vogue for both women and men. The fashion remained popular for about fifty years before it was considered déclassé. Heels remained in vogue with men of small stature and sex workers. Apart from her political role, Catherine was a patron of the arts. Her interest in architecture was demonstrated by in the building of a new wing of the Louvre Museum. Perhaps her greatest contribution was to French cuisine. Until her arrival French cookery was heavy monotonous and over spiced. Catherine took with her from Florence an army of cooks, bakers and confectioners including a variety of delicacies then unknown to the French. In the following century Francois Pierre de La Varenne developed the first true French sauces which were to revolutionise French cookery. Catherine also brought pasta, ointments and the glove fashion to Paris. She is also credited with bringing perfume to the capital. Her perfumier, Ren the Florentine, was popular and sold perfume and poison to high-class Parisians. The fashion to scent gloves came because the leathers were so badly tanned they needed to mask the smell. Catherine also made the fashion of carrying small bottles of perfume about her person very popular. She kept a large entourage of lady’s in waiting and encouraged them to sleep with the rich and powerful. By this means she perfected pillow talk to spy on her allies and enemies, alike. Catherine was not averse to foul play and introduced poisoning to the French court and for fun she started the Protestant and Catholic Wars. Catherine was the genuine Jezebel in heels.

Reviewed 2/08/2018

Wednesday, August 01, 2018

Shakespearean Feet

In Shakespeare's time (1564–1616) the fashionable style of shoe worn by men was called the bears paw. It was a broad shoe which had individual compartments for each toe. So broad were these shoes there was actually not enough flat surfaces in towns for dandies to walk past each other without tripping over. Such events often led to fights and inevitably duel to the death.

Malvolio was a character from Twelfth Night and a subplot of this comedy involved his pomposity and vain attempts to attract the opposite sex whilst being duped by clever pranksters. As the plot unfolds this involved in no small part his shoes and colourful hose. Through his creation, the bard wrote the immortal lines

"Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon'em."

Unfortunately for Malvolio success did not come by way of his pedal extremities. Ever observant Shakespeare also caught the contemporary female fashion for platform shoes.

"By'r lady, your ladyship is neare to heavan than when I saw you last, by the altitude of a chopine."

Chopines were stilt like shoes (forerunners to the platform) worn by the high brow Venetian women in the middle ages. They were popular but only a few paintings & illustrations exist which demonstrate the fashion. This may be in part because chopines were worn under long skirts and considered private. Had Cressida worn them in Shakespear's Troilus and Cressida then there may not have been such a mystery. The unfaithful Cressida was described as a rather loud lady.

"Fie, fie upon her! There's language in her eye, her cheek, her lip, Nay, her foot speaks; her wanton spirits look out at every joint and motive of her body."

What is more strange is the car company, Toyota, named a range of cars after her.

Corns were very much part of Shakespeare’s world and at a party held by the Capulets, ladies are invited to dance and those who refuse were accused of suffering from corns. Shakespeare made reference to the rediculousness of putting the shoe on the wrong foot when he penned in King John (Act 4, scene 2),

"standing on slippers (which his nimble haste had falsely thrust upon contrary feet)”

In all his collected works however Shakespeare did not pen the following.

"Be it resolved that all women of whatever age, rank, profession, or degree; whether virgin, maids or widows; that shall after the passing of this Act, impose upon and betray into matrimony any of His majesty's male subjects, by scents, paints, cosmetics, washes, artificial teeth. false hair. Spanish wool, iron stays, hoops, high heeled shoes, or bolstered hips, shall incur the penalty of the laws now in force against witchcraft, sorcery, and such like misdemeanors, and that the marriage upon conviction, shall stand null and void."

This was an edict in colonial America about half a century after the Bard’s death. The contents of the legislation are clear enough and particularly indicative of how men were in complete distrust of women.

Tuesday, July 31, 2018

Incorrectly fitted footwear, foot pain and foot disorders: a systematic search and narrative review of the literature

A recent paper published in Journal of Foot and Ankle Research considers the published literature relating tp the association between ill fitting footwear and the more common foot pathologies. Conventional wisdom determines correct footwear fitting is vitally important to good foot health. The aim of this narrative review was to determine the prevalence of incorrectly fitted footwear and to examine the association between incorrectly fitted footwear, foot pain and foot disorders. Following a database search of Ovid MEDLINE and CINAHL for title and abstract review, 1,681 citations were reduced to eighteen articles for detailed analysis. Findings were summarised under the categories of (i) children, (ii) adults, (ii) older people, (iii) people with diabetes and (iii) occupation- or activity-specific footwear. Differences in footwear fitting between sexes were also explored. Between 63 and 72% of participants were wearing shoes that did not accommodate either width or length dimensions of their feet. There was also evidence that incorrect footwear fitting was associated with foot pain and foot disorders such as lesser toe deformity, corns and calluses. Specific participant groups, such as children with Down syndrome and older people and people with diabetes were more likely to wear shoes that were too narrow (between 46 and 81%). The authors discovered a large proportion of the population complaining of foot pain and related disorders were also wearing incorrectly sized footwear. The findings suggest greater emphasis should be placed on improving awareness of footwear fitting requirements; and increasing availabililty of footwear more able to accommodate the variation in foot morphology among the population, particularly in relation to foot width.

Buldt A. K., and Menz H. B., (2018) Incorrectly fitted footwear, foot pain and foot disorders: a systematic search and narrative review of the literature Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 2018 11:43

Quo Vadis: Where are you going?

Early Christians protected their feet by the patronage of the holy and this may be because the New Testament was disseminated through barefooted evangelists. Two Saints championed the legs and feet, St Peter (The Apostle), and Servatus (Servaas, Servatius or Servais). Servatus was frequently depicted as a bishop with three wooden shoes. In Biblical times shoes were made from animal skins which were impossible to clean. This may explain why shoes were removed before entering the home, foot bathing too would become a ritualistic cleaning. In the Old Testament, an agricultural society, shoes represented all that was of this earth and unclean. The emblems of filth were left outside homes and considered quite unsuitable for holy places. Feet encased in footwear required to be purified and this responsibility usually fell to the lowest house servant. Foot bathing signified the status of an honoured guest and put them at ease and comfort. It also kept the floors, clean. Foot washing was viewed as an honour or service and became a common Jewish custom at formal banquets and took place either on arrival or before the feast. Foot washing, when undertaken by anyone other than the lowest servant in the household, took on significant symbolic importance. Most authorities recognize this humble action as deliberate act of humility, a mark of respect or deliberate self-humiliation.

Ceremonial feet washing often involved marking the toe with blood or oil to symbolize either consecration or the cleansing of the entire person. This type of ritual was considered important before entering God's house. Bathing feet in oil was also taken as a prospect of wealth. When Mary Magdalene washed the feet of Jesus with her tears and dried them with her hair, she also anointed them with expensive ointment. For this token of devotion, Christ forgave her sins then proceeded to remind his host that he had not been extended the same courtesy as would be appropriate to a welcome guest. Jesus then subverted the symbolism by washing the feet of his disciple’s feet at the Last Supper. Despite protestation he reminded his devotees the significance of foot washing, which is celebrated to this day.

'I have done this to give you an example of something that you should do.'

Christ's action is thought to demonstrate service rather than status represented greatness in the Kingdom of Heaven. This action prepared his disciples (and their converts) to walk in the path of righteousness. Christians adopted the Hebrew foot washing ceremony and in some religious faiths this is still considered as one of the three ordinances (sacrament) i.e. baptism, the Lord's Supper, and foot washing. Foot washing acts as a renewal of baptism and commitment to living God's way of life. Foot washing is still practiced in one form or other throughout the world on the Thursday before Good Friday. Popes, religious leaders, and monarchs have all honoured the commitment to faith and humanity.

In the UK the ceremony was often accompanied with the distribution of alms in the form of food and drink, clothes and money. Until 1689, in the reign of William & Mary, the monarchs personally washed the feet of the selected poor. Foot cleaning was replaced by specially minted coins, called Monday Money. To this day the custom is still celebrated on the day before Good Friday, when Her Majesty the Queen distributes specially minted money to the poor. A man and woman are chosen to represent each year of the monarch's life and given the special coins in a church. The specially minted coinage is worth much more than its face value.

Proskunew describes a Persian custom, which involved kneeling and putting the face to the ground. This sometimes involved kissing the ground. Taken as the act of submission, respect, gratitude, supplication, neediness, and humility. This was used on all sorts of occasions. Thought to have originated as a non-verbal greeting where men of equal rank would kiss each other on the lips. An inferior kissed his superior on the cheeks, and where one was much less noble rank than the other, he fell to the ground in homage. Considered to have become ritualized at the oriental courts, depending on rank, visitors would prostrate themselves, kneel in front of, bow for, or blow a kiss to the king. There may have been practical reasons for blowing a kiss as halitosis was thought to be common. Magicians would use the same technique in order to prevent contamination of the sacred fire. Alexander the Great (327) spread his empire to incorporate others and naturally took Iranians to serve at his court. To win his or her respect and support he had to act like a Persian king, and ordered everybody to behave according to the oriental court ritual. The court custom, caused consternation amongst the Greeks as prostration, bowing or kneeling, to anyone other than the Gods was unacceptable. Despite violent opposition it is not clear whether Alexander the Great’s attempt at cultural infliction, succeeded. However, proskynesis was commonly practiced at the courts of his successors and remnants remain today occidentals, still bow for kings and queens. By the time of the Old Testament the custom had passed in judicial behaviour and when an accused was brought before the judge, he lay prostate. If found guilty, the judge would place his foot on their neck. If innocent the judge would stoop over and lift their face with his hand. Lifting the face was a Hebrew concept, which equalled a declaration of innocence in a judicial, proceeding.

When Muslims bow towards Mecca this is another reference to proskynesis and by contrast the posture of early Christian worship. was standing.

According to Brasch (1989), kissing the feet was a gesture of homage and deference, far removed from its erotic roots. Millions of pilgrims with loving pressure have worn down the feet of the statue of Saint Paul in Rome with their lips. At the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire it was the custom for the faithful to kiss the right hand of the Papal Father. In the eighth century, a rather passionate woman took liberties and according to legend, the Pope cut off his hand in disgust. The custom of kissing the Pope’s right foot was adapted as more appropriate. Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) had kings and churchmen kiss his feet. Today the act of homage involves kissing the Pontiff’s right shoe. Lips are aimed at the cross-depicted on the shoe. This is either taken as a tribute to his authority or the simulation of servitude.

The Feast of Peter and Paul is June 29th; and Servatus (Servaas, Servatius or Servais), his memorial day on 13 May.

Reviewed 31/07/2018

Monday, July 30, 2018

Every little helps

Bata the Shoemaker's Revolution

Bata the Shoemaker's Revolution Witness BBC World Service Bata was a Czech company which pioneered assembly line shoemaking and sold affordable footwear around the world. Its factory near London became key to its expansion. Dina Newman speaks to one of its senior engineers, Mick Pinion, about the company's remarkable history and how it shod millions in Africa and Asia.

Bushwalking Boots: Are you truck'en right ?

Bush walkers can be divided into two camps those who swear by solid boots and those who wear light-weight footwear such as joggers. (Dunlop KT-26s and the ultra-light Dunlop Volleys). A minority wear “sports sandals" and even fewer still go in the raw, barefoot. The old chestnut, between military tradition and modern technology still divide devotees. Arguments for boots include durability, ankle support, crampons and tradition. Meantime the light-weight brigade champion economy, lightweight, comfort, minimal impact and environmentally friendliness. In the end the bushwalkers cardinal rule is summarized by “the 3C rule”, i.e. comfort, comfort and comfort.

Bushwalking shops generally recommend lightweight footwear and sell boots. Boots are more robust but not always better, according to those who prefer to wear joggers. Boots are preferred in inclement weather but in less climatic extremes light weight trainers have their place. Waterproof boots have obvious advantage but can fill up with water too. Boots with no drainage leave the bush walker to stroll with two buckets of water on your feet. Prolonged exposure of the feet in cold water can have dire consequences. Not all boots are waterproof, but Gore-Tex linings keep the feet dry even when the boot is wet.

Trainer advocates counter canvas topped shoes can be run dry if they get wet and give adequate protection for ford or river crossing. Boots provide ankle support, or so the retailers tell us. However, it depends how high above the ankle they are worn. High ankle boots can restrict ankle movement and can cause painful shin splints as the foot is forced to lever against a stiffened boot. Alternatively, novice walkers can strengthen their ankle musculature prior to going walking and this prevents painful symptoms when wearing low cut footwear, thereby circumventing above ankle boots. Ankle vigor’s (elasticated bandages) will also help support weak ankles and can be worn with boots or trainers. Boots provide stiffer soles which help reduce the energy required to walk over rough terrain.

Deep treads increase traction and give greater stability but can damage fragile terrain. Stiff boots are also clumsy and may cause sprained ankles. Lightweight footwear allows feet to adapt to the terrain, especially on loose scree. This is environmentally important if falls and damage to the pathways are to be avoided. It is important that good tread is captured on the trainer sole as worn treads will not grip the ground so firmly. Old favourite trainers need to be replaced fairly regularly which adds to the cost of footwear. Boots are less likely to wear as quickly. Experts believe the weight of the shoe is also important as research has shown carrying 1 kg on the feet is the equivalent of carrying a 7 kg backpack. Synthetic materials such as foams are less heavy than natural ones and offer more properties to the working foot. This again tends to prefer the trainers as footwear of choice. Boots and trainers are made differently which can influence choice. Both are made to lasts (models of the foot), a boot usually starts with a rigid flat sole, often of hard leather. Most joggers start with an injection-molded cup-shaped sole, to which the upper is bonded. The sole may be natural or synthetic rubber. One complication with trainers is manufacturers change their popular fashion models pretty frequently. By the time you have found a style that suits it has gone off the market.

To the uninitiated trainers come in a bewildering array of styles. Some designs are good, but be careful as some designs belong on the catwalk and have no shelf life on the bush track. Cross training joggers are a hybrid shoe meant for fashion-conscious teenagers playing street basketball, but are not ideal for bush walking. Walking style trainers are made to cope with asphalt and wear heavily on rough terrain. Running style trainers are not that much better. All Terrain joggers generally have good soles and are suited to bushwalking. They are usually a bit cheaper than the fashion versions as well.

(Video Courtesy: Mari Johnson Youtube Channel)

Reviewed 30/07/2018

Sunday, July 29, 2018

Human gait

As to whether we evolved in a linear fashion from arboreal apes or just one day our ancestors just stood up in not entirely clear. However, the effect of complete transfer of function of arms and hands to legs and feet led to a change from vertical suspension by the upper extremity to vertical support by the lower extremity. The heel dropped to weightbear and the foot ceased to function as a grasper and operate as a lever instead. The divergent hallux was necessary for arboreal life; but terrestrial habits necessitated a straight line axis between the first and second metatarsals. The heel, medial arch and big toe are critical to bipedal and unique to human beings. There is no scientific evidence to support gender or racial differences in the anatomy of the foot. Upright posture allowed hands to develop and many authorities consider bi-pedalism ensured the human brain became more complex. The expansion and elaboration of the brain followed the development of the foot by two million years. During that time speech developed and I believe our ancestors learned to think on their feet. A remnant of this is seen today with the inclusion of foot and lower limb metaphors within our lexicon.

Walking is a learned human trait which involves an intricate cerebral, neuromuscular co-ordination to control the centre of pressure of the body and its multi-articular extremities. Our whole civilization is based on being able to move from one point to another, either micro journeys like walking across the shopping mall or macro journeys like travelling across the world. The complete foci of rehabilitation therapy today is the goal of independent movement and fundamental human right. Bipedal stance has influenced the anatomic development of buttocks and bosoms; legs and thighs, as well as tummies and hips. Sigmund Freud considered the development of upright stance led to display the primary and secondary sexual characteristics. In no other living creature is this so overt and indeed frontal copulation is a coital position unique to human beings. The Victorian psychologist reasoned as a species with procreation on its mind humans had no need to develop a sense of smell because there were greater benefits in perfecting sight.

Importance of the arch?

A dynamic foot print captures the foot in contact with the ground during the stance phase of gait. This may last for approximately 0.6 of a second. The foot has five separate functions during this time i.e. it absorbs shock (shock attenuation) as the heel hits the ground to dampen down the impact of heel strike on the upper body; in quick order it becomes a mobile adapter during mid stance to spread the load over its surface and again stabilise the upper leg; in conjunction with the other foot (now in mid-air) the weight bearing foot then reforms to become a rigid lever to start propulsion, finally the foot takes off through the great toe. The function of the arch is to maintain a spring in the foot which ensures the ability to change from a shock absorber through to a stable pedestal then finally a rigid lever. There is not much gainful information can be taken from a static print of the foot, so often used to gauge flat feet. To make any sense of the kinetic machine the foot print needs to be dynamic with software appropriate to break the foot contact down into time phases. This is what happens in gait laboratories where force, pressure, shear, heat and position can all be analysed.

Gait Analysis, what is that all about?

Research has shown human movement is a repeating set of activities. Cycles are not exact replicas but are very close, none the less. First cinematography then high speed video facilitated slow motion analysis which allowed models of human movement to be examined and assessed. Podiatric biomechanics works on the principle of allopathy with foot levers, lifts and tilts. The effects of these replacements can be observed and measured using gait analysis. Kinematics information may be combined with kinesiology to compare physical with physiological data in a valuable biomechanical profile. Interpreting static footprints was a medical preoccupation early in the century and referred to a crude method of selecting people for military service. Two extremes defined the parameters of a normal foot. These were a flat arch or a high arch with something in between the middle being taken a normal. This does not account for foot mobility and many soldiers ended up in the forces because they had high arched feet that were rigid. Most inappropriate for square bashing and a guaranteed military service fraught with sore feet. Others would be recruits were perhaps more fortunate to be rejected because their feet were mobile and flattened on weight bearing. The type of foot is often found in elite sportspeople used to extreme activities, usually pain free.

Length of toes is there a significance?

An extremity which grasps things like the hand needs long digits; a lever requires only short extensions. There are periods of prehistory where it has now been shown the length of the toes in early humans shortened. It is most unlikely shoes have had any influence on either the evolution of feet or the genetic pattern of modern feet. But the design of early footwear especially sandals does reinforce the familial tendencies found in different races. For example, Greek sandals were made to accommodate a long second toe; Romans, a long first; and Mesopotamians, a long third. Egyptian statues capture this phenomenon and historians believe this was considered a mark of respect for the other Mediterranean civilisations.

(Video Courtesy: The Unforgettables Tv Youtube Channel)